Status and distribution Breeds in north Denmark and across virtually the whole of Fenno-Scandia, and from eastern France and the Alps east across Europe to the Urals. Breeds in very small numbers in Scotland and has bred elsewhere in Britain and in Iceland. First recorded breeding for Bulgaria occurred in 1993.
Birds from most of Fenno-Scandia and north & east Russia are migratory, and those from the remainder of range partially migratory. Winter range includes Iceland, British Is and southern parts of Sweden and Finland south to the Mediterranean. Rarely reaches North-West Africa but regular in Nile Delta
Vagrants recorded in Svalbard, Bear I and Jan Mayen, and also Madeira and Kuwait.
Habitat Breeds in open birch, alder or coniferous woodland, often in damp areas and along rivers. Also in more open, moorland-type habitats with stunted trees and rocky outcrops. On passage and in winter on damp and grassy fields interspersed with small woods and hedgerows. In severe weather often attracted to parks and gardens.